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White Dwarf 3p

Laser for 3-photon deep-tissue imaging at highest frame-rates
  • wavelength: 1300 nm or 1700 nm
  • repetition rate: 5 MHz
  • average power: > 3 W or > 5 W
  • high-speed or high-resolution deep imaging
  • based on industrial Yb femtosecond laser


High performance femtosecond laser for three-photon microscopy (3p microscopy)

The White Dwarf is a femtosecond laser system specially designed for three-photon microscopy offering highest performance and robustness.

With the highest peak power available for 3-photon microscopy, the White Dwarf allows neuroscientists to discover new frontiers in deep brain imaging. Additionally, the one-box solution offers compactness and robustness.


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High power for fast and deep imaging

> 5 W average power after compressor

Proven in the field

Trusted by 20+ neuroscience labs worldwide


Robust one-box design

1035 nm output

Output for optogenetics optionally available


WD-1300S WD-1300 WD-1300-pro
Central wavelength 1300 nm 1300 nm 1300 nm
Average power > 1 W > 3 W > 5 W
Pulse duration
< 50 fs < 50 fs < 50 fs
Dispersion compensation
up to -12.000 fs^2 up to -12.000 fs^2 up to -12.000 fs^2
Pulse energy
> 1 µJ at 1 MHz > 3 µJ at 1 MHz > 5 µJ at 1 MHz
Repetition rate 1 MHz up to 5 MHz up to 5 MHz
Beam quality M2  < 1.3 < 1.3 < 1.3
Power stability
12 hrs
< 1% < 1 % < 1 %
Dimensions  95 cm x 65 cm 95 cm x 65 cm 95 cm x 65 cm


  • Volumetric brain imaging
  • Scanning temporal focusing microscopy (sTeFo)
  • Adaptive optics (AO) three-photon microscopy


Do you have customer references?

Yes, the White Dwarf is already installed and tested by many labs. Please contact us, we are happy to share specific references to your application. You can find a first overview of scientific publications from our users below.

How many outputs does the White Dwarf 3p provide?

The White Dwarf 3p can offer up to two outputs: 1300 nm and 1035 nm. The system can be designed to offer all outputs simultaneously or switchable between different outputs. Please also check our White Dwarf-dual and White Dwarf-hybrid for additional output channels.

At which repetition rate does the White Dwarf 3p operate?

Our White Dwarf 3p version can be configured at any single repetition rate between 1 and 5 MHz. The maximum average power is available at the configured repetition rate. Lower repetition rates can be chosen using the built-in pulse-picker. This provides a constant pulse energy at correspondingly lower average power. Example: White Dwarf operating at 2 MHz and 2.5 µJ delivers 5 W; it can be down-picked to 1 MHz and 2.5 µJ delivering 2.5 W.

Who installs the White Dwarf?

Our service team will install the pump laser and the OPCPA at the customer’s site. Users will receive training on the operation of the White Dwarf.

Is the pump laser included in the White Dwarf?

Yes, we offer the full package including pump laser and OPCPA. The pump laser is integrated into the OPCPA housing on a shared thermally managed breadboard offering a robust one-box solution.


  • May 2, 2019
    Weisenburger et al., Volumetric Ca2+ Imaging in the Mouse Brain Using Hybrid Multiplexed Sculpted Light Microscopy, Cell (2019)
  • September 30, 2021
    Streich, L., Boffi, J.C., Wang, L. et al. High-resolution structural and functional deep brain imaging using adaptive optics three-photon microscopy. Nat Methods 18, 1253–1258 (2021).
  • November 28, 2022
    Klioutchnikov, A., Wallace, D.J., Sawinski, J. et al., A three-photon head-mounted microscope for imaging all layers of visual cortex in freely moving mice, Nat Methods (2022).
  • June 21, 2023
    Marc Cicero Schubert, Stella Judith Soyka et. al., Deep intravital brain tumor imaging enabled by tailored three-photon microscopy and analysis
  • December 21, 2023
    Che-Hang Yu, Yiyi Yu,…, Alipasha Vaziri,…, David Fitzpatrick,…, Prakash Kara,…, Ikuko T. Smith & Spencer LaVere Smith, The Cousa objective: a long-working distance air objective for multiphoton imaging in vivo, Nature Methods 2023